lessons

Unit 1 Lesson 2: Interrogative and Declarative Expressions
Beginning learning in the language

Once you have learned the alphabet used in the language, the best way to start learning words and forming sentences, is to do them both at the same time by learning interrogative statements. Many times, instructional courses will start a language course by having you memorize long lists of vocabulary words, or complicated grammar lessons. Although this method works for some, it is arguably one of the least effective styles of learning. To start out in a language, you need to learn question words and sentences along with their correct answers. Here are the first things you should learn to say in the language: (Cebuano Text are in BLUE)

Interrogatives:

- What - Unsa // When – Kanus-a // Where – Asa, Diin, Hain // How – Unsa, unsaon (in what manner) // Why - Ngano

- Who are you? Kinsa ka? // Who are they? Kinsa sila?

- What is it? Unsa kini? // What is that? Unsa kana?// What does it mean? Unsa ang pasabot niana? // What are they doing? Unsa ang ilang ginabuhat?

- How do you say? Unsaon nimo pagsulti? // How are you? Kamusta ka?//

- Where are we? Asa na ta? // When is it? Kanus-a kini? // Where is it? Asa kini?

- Which kind? Unsang klase?// What kind? Unsang klase?// Which one? Asa ini?

- When is it? Kanus-a kini?// When is that? Kanus-a kana?

- Why? Ngano? // Why do you___? Ngano imo _____? // Why do we_____? Ngano atoa _______? // Why do you say_____?
Ngano imo nga gi-ingon ______?

- How do I do that? Unsaon nako pagbuhat niana? // How do you do that? Unsaon nimo pagbuhat niana?

- Can I have it? Pwede ako na kini? // Can I have one? Pwede makabaton ko og usa?

- Do you speak ______? Nagapamulong ka og ________? // Can you speak______? Makapamulong ka og ________?
- Are you ____? Ikaw ba ______? // Can you____? Makabuhat ka ba og ______? // Will you____? Ipalihog ra_____?

- How much? Pila? // How much is that? Pila kana? // How much is this? Pila kini?


Non-interrogatives (declaratives, imperatives, etc.):

- Yes Oo// No Dili // Maybe Tingali, Basin, // Perhaps Lagmit// Because Tungod kay, Sanglit // Because of Tungud, Gumikan// and ug // or o, kun,// if kon

- Your Imo // My Ako nga// Mine Ako, Nako, ko // His Iyaha// Her Iyaha// Their Ilaha

- Here Diri// There Didto// Anywhere Bisan asa// Nowhere sa wala’y dapit// Nothing wala

- Anyone Bisan kinsa// Anywhere Bisan asa // Anything Bisan unsa

- Something usa ka butang// Someone usa ka tawo// Somewhere sa usa ka dapit

- This one Kining usa// That one Kanang usa

- I don't know. Wala ko kabalo.

- I speak___. Ako mamulong _________.// I can speak____. Ako makapamulong ___________. // We can speak___. Makapamulong kami __________.

- it is____. Mao kini _____// It is my___. Akoa kini ______/ It is your____. Mao imoha nga______.

- This is____. Mao kini______. // This is my____. Mao kini akoa nga_______. // That is a ___. Mao kana usa ka______.

- I am ____. Ako si ________. // My name is ____. Ang akoang ngalan mao si _________. // Your name is____. Ang imong ngalan mao si______.//

His name is ___. Ang iyahang ngalan mao si __________. // Her name is ____. Ang iyahang ngalan mao si _____________.

This is a brief list of interrogative and non-interrogative words and phrases that you should learn when learning a language from scratch. These are the best words to know in a language when you're just beginning to learn. This list doesn't contain all of the combination possible with these phrases that you need to know. So to fully use this list, take each instance of "you" or "I" or "they" , etc., and replace it with all of the following pronouns:

- I Ako, ko
- you ikaw, ka
- he / she siya
- him / her siya
- them / they sila
- we / us kami, kita
- one usa

For example, for the phrase "Where are we" Asa na kita?, you would not only learn how to say "where are we" but also...
- Where are you? Asa na ka?
- Where am I? Asa na ko?
- Where is he/she? Asa na siya?
- Where are they? Asa na sila?

You would do this for each of the words and phrases from the list above of interrogatives and non-interrogatives. Notices how I used the pronouns from the list above and replaced them with "we" kita, kami from the original phrase "Where are we?".
Unit 1 Lesson 2: Interrogative and Declarative Expressions

Interrogative Pronouns







Interrogative pronouns are exclusively used for questions. They are place markers for nouns which answer the question who, what, where, etc. In Cebuano there is no inflection for number, person, or case. However, some interrogative pronounce have inflection for tense. The following tables shows some common
Interrogative pronouns:




Cebuano
English
Example sentence
English Translation
Pronoun
Pronoun
kinsa
who, which
Kinsa ang imong higala?
Who is your friend?
Kinsang tawhana misumbag kanimo?
Which man punches you?
kang kinsa
to whom
Kang kinsa ka mipadala og kwarta?
To whom do you send the money?
kang kinsang
whose
Kang kinsang awtoha kini?
Whose car is this?
para kang kinsa
for whom
Para kang kinsa ang regalo?
For whom is the gift?
unsa
what, which
Unsa ang imong ngalan?
What is your name?
Unsay imong ngalan?
Unsang balaya imo?
Which house is yours?
diin (past tense)
where
Diin ka?
Where have you been?
asa (present/future tense)
Asa ka?
Where are you?
hain (present/future tense)
Hain ka?
Where are you?
kanus-a (past/present tense)
when
kanus-a ka mikaon?
When did you eat?
anus-a (future tense)
Anus-a ka mokaon?
When will you eat?
ngano
why
Nganong misumbag ka kanako?
Why do you punch me?
kamusta
how is
Kamusta ang panahon?
How's the weather?
how are

Cebuano
English
Example sentence
English Translation
Pronoun
Pronoun
giunsa (past/present tense)
how
Giunsa nimo pagbuhat kana?
How do you do that?
unsaon (future tense)
Unsaon nimo pagbuhat kana?
How will you do that?
pila
how much
Pila ang awto?
How much is the car?
tagpila
how much (per unit)
Tagpila ang isda?
How much does the fish cost (per unit)?
pila ka buok
how many
Pila ka buok ang imong libro?
How many books do you have?
Pila ka libro anaa ka?
(ma)kapila
how often
Makapila ka magtuon sa usa ka semana?
How often do you study in a week?


Note: The table was taken from Tom Marking’s Cebuano Study Notes, p.62.

For March 25, 2010, we will have an oral review of the Alphabet and Parts of the Body. Please try to run through them – practicing it. Don’t bother the awkwardness that you may be pronouncing it, we are learning. In class, we can polish it.


Alphabet
Alpabeto
















Cebuano
English
Cebuano
English
Cebuano
English
a
ah
anak
child
asawa
wife
alalay
assistant
b
ba
baka
cow
balay
house
bata
child
k
ka
kama
bed
kwarta
money
kwarto
room
d
da
daga
rat
dalaga
single lady
dayon
enter
e
eh
epekto
effect
ewan
I don't know
eskandalo
scandal
g
g
gawas
outside
gabii
night
garahe
garage
h
ha
hagdan
stair
halok
kis
haba
length
i
ih
init
hot
ibabaw
on top
ipahayag
to make known
l
la
lami
delicious
layo
afar
labada
laundry
m
ma
maayo
fine
magluto
to cook
matulog
to sleep
n
na
naa
available
nalagot
irritated
nakatago
hidden
o
oh
oras
time
ordinaryo
ordinary
ospital
hospital
p
pa
paa
leg
paagi
a way
pasaylo
forgive
r
ra
regla
menstration
renta
rent
relasyon
relation
s
sa
saad
promise
sabot
agreement
saging
banana
t
ta
tawag
call
tawo
person
tiil
foot
u
oo
ug
and
ugma
tomorrow
utang
debt
w
wa
wala
none
wali
sermon
walhon
left-handed
y
ya
yabag
out of tune
yam-id
squirm
yano
ordinary


Mga parte sa lawas sa tawo


(Parts of the human body)








Use *
Gamit*
Head
Ulo
Think
Huna-huna
1. Eye
mata
see
tan'aw
2. Ear
dalunggan
hear
dungóg
3. Nose
ilong
smell
simhot
4. Mouth
bâbâ
eat
kaon
5. Neck
liog
6. Hair
buhók
dye
tina
Body
Lawas
dance
sayaw
1. Arm
Bukton
swing
tabyog
Elbow
Siko
Wrist
Pulso
Hand
Kamút
write
pagsulat
Fingers
Tudlò
point
pagtudlo
2. Chest
dughan
3. Stomach
tungol, tiyán
4. Abdomen
tiyán
5. Back
likúd
6. Waist
hawak
7. Hip
bat’ang
8. Butt
Sampot, balat’ang
sit on
lingkod
9. Spine
dugukan, taludtud
10. Genital
kinatawo
sex
pakighilawas
penis
utin, buto
vagina
bilát, bisóng
Leg
Bitiis
kick
sipa
1. Thigh
Paa
2. Knee
Tuhod
kneel
luhod
3. Angkle
Buúlbuúl
4. Foot
Tiíl
walk
lakaw
5. Toe
Tudlò sa tiíl
wiggle
kisikisi








* Note: Function of selected parts of the human body.



lesson 1

Alphabet

There are 15 consonants and 5 vowels in Cebuano:

Letter Mnemonic Classification Description

a ah vowel central tongue advancement
b ba consonant bilabial
k ka consonant velar
d da consonant alveolar
e ee vowel frontal tongue advancement
g ga consonant velar
h ha consonant glottal
i ih vowel frontal tongue advancement
l la consonant alveolar
m ma consonant bilabial
n na consonant alveolar
ng nga consonant nasal
o oh vowel back tongue advancement
p pa consonant bilabial
r ra consonant alveolar
s sa consonant alveolar
t ta consonant alveolar
u oo vowel back tongue advancement
w wa consonant labio-velar
y ya consonant palatal

The letter g is always pronounced like a hard g in English (e.g., get). Unlike English, in Cebuano the ng sound can occur at the beginning of a word (e.g., ngalan). It takes a while for an English speaker to master this pronunciation.

The following letters are absent from Cebuano except for foreign words:
c (hard c is replaced by k; soft c is replaced by s)
f (replaced by p)
j (replaced by dy)
q (replaced by kw)
v (replaced by b)
x (replaced by ks)
z









Vowels

There are only 3 vowel sounds in Cebuano:

a is always pronounced like the first vowel in the English word father.

i and e are interchangeable. There is no difference in pronunciation between the two of them. i/e is either pronounced like the second vowel in the English word taxi (e.g., gabii) or like the vowel in the English word it (e.g., pansit).
o and u are interchangeable. There is no difference in pronunciation between
the two of them. In vowel-consonant syllables o/u is pronounced like the vowel
in the English word cute (e.g., ug). In consonant-vowel syllables o/u is
pronounced like the vowel in the English word coat (e.g., ko).

If two vowels are adjacent to one another then they do NOT form a diphthong.
Rather, each vowel must be pronounced separately (e.g., taas, gabii,
makainom).

There are a number of spelling rules pertaining to vowels:

e is only used after y (e.g., babaye) except for words of Spanish origin
(e.g., edad)

o is used for the last syllable of a word and u is used for previous syllables
(e.g., mubo) but there are some notable exceptions:

o affixes use o (e.g., mopalit, paliton, kan-onon)
o certain words of Spanish origin use o (e.g., Dominggo)
o certain words built on the repetition of subunits keep the o
(e.g., bongbong)
o if affixes are added the o can change to u because it is no longer in the
last syllable (e.g., Sugbo changes to Sugbuanon)
o og is used as a nonspecific objective case marker and ug is used as
the conjunction and
o kon means if and kun means or


Alphabet
Alpabeto
















Cebuano
English
Cebuano
English
Cebuano
English
a
ah
anak
child
asawa
wife
alalay
assistant
b
ba
baka
cow
balay
house
bata
child
k
ka
kama
bed
kwarta
money
kwarto
room
d
da
daga
rat
dalaga
single lady
dayon
enter
e
eh
epekto
effect
ewan
I don't know
eskandalo
scandal
g
g
gawas
outside
gabii
night
garahe
garage
h
ha
hagdan
stair
halok
kis
haba
length
i
ih
init
hot
ibabaw
on top
ipahayag
to make known
l
la
lami
delicious
layo
afar
labada
laundry
m
ma
maayo
fine
magluto
to cook
matulog
to sleep
n
na
naa
available
nalagot
irritated
nakatago
hidden
o
oh
oras
time
ordinaryo
ordinary
ospital
hospital
p
pa
paa
leg
paagi
a way
pasaylo
forgive
r
ra
regla
menstration
renta
rent
relasyon
relation
s
sa
saad
promise
sabot
agreement
saging
banana
t
ta
tawag
call
tawo
person
tiil
foot
u
oo
ug
and
ugma
tomorrow
utang
debt
w
wa
wala
none
wali
sermon
walhon
left-handed
y
ya
yabag
out of tune
yam-id
squirm
yano
ordinary







Mga parte sa lawas sa tawo


(Parts of the human body)








Use *
Gamit*
Head
Ulo
Think
Huna-huna
1. Eye
mata
see
tan'aw
2. Ear
dalunggan
hear
dungóg
3. Nose
ilong
smell
simhot
4. Mouth
bâbâ
eat
kaon
5. Neck
liog
6. Hair
buhók
dye
tina
Body
Lawas
dance
sayaw
1. Arm
Bukton
swing
tabyog
Elbow
Siko
Wrist
Pulso
Hand
Kamút
write
pagsulat
Fingers
Tudlò
point
pagtudlo
2. Chest
dughan
3. Stomach
tungol, tiyán
4. Abdomen
tiyán
5. Back
likúd
6. Waist
hawak
7. Hip
bat’ang
8. Butt
Sampot, balat’ang
sit on
lingkod
9. Spine
dugukan, taludtud
10. Genital
kinatawo
sex
pakighilawas
penis
utin, buto
vagina
bilát, bisóng
Leg
Bitiis
kick
sipa
1. Thigh
Paa
2. Knee
Tuhod
kneel
luhod
3. Angkle
Buúlbuúl
4. Foot
Tiíl
walk
lakaw
5. Toe
Tudlò sa tiíl
wiggle
kisikisi








* Note: Function of selected parts of the human body.

Resources that can be used as reference to the study course:

1.Cebuano Study Notes by Tom Marking. www.tomandcathymarking.com/cebuano.htm
2.Cebuano Language Packet by Peace Corps, Manila.
3.An English-Cebuano Visayan Dictionary by Rodolfo Cabonce, SJ
4.Edgie B. Pulistico English-Cebuano / Cebuano-English Dictionary

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